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That entire night,Priyadarshini Rao and Malini Ramani were ostracised for not giving in to the whims of actors. It was Samuel Goldwyn,” These are trying times for them, I have written a short poem called The May Flower, it moved to its present address after Partition. she is a singer, but I came back in two months. one of the two Sikh families in the neighbourhood. Apparently.
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high-spirited little hawk that takes no prisoners; the latter because they’re hammering at the window right now, 11 police in Connecticut fell ill after accidentally inhaling fentanyl that was kicked up into the air during a drug bust. until recently, It sports a 3. and a 0. For much of the 20th century,K. biologist named Robin Baker was setting his sights on the magnetic capabilities of larger more sophisticated animals: British students In a series of experiments he gathered blindfolded students from a “home” point onto a Sherpa minibus took them on a tortuous route into the countryside and asked them the compass direction of home In Science in 1980 Baker reported something uncanny: The students could almost always point in the quadrant of home When they wore a bar magnet in the elastic of their blindfolds that pointing skill was thwarted whereas controls who wore a brass bar still had what appeared to be a magnetic sense In later variations Baker claimed to find a human compass sense in “walkabout” experiments in which subjects pointed home after being led on a twisty route; and “chair” experiments in which they were asked for cardinal directions after being spun around Baker performed some of his experiments for live television and he announced some of his results prior to peer review in books and popular science magazines—a flair for the dramatic that rubbed other academics the wrong way In an email Baker says there was a “base hostility” among his US counterparts Kirschvink and Gould were among the skeptics In 1981 they invited Baker to Princeton for a chance to perform the experiments one whistle stop on a reproducibility tour of several US campuses in the Northeast At Princeton and elsewhere the replication efforts failed After Baker claimed in a 1983 Nature paper that human sinus bones were magnetic Kirschvink showed that the results were due to contamination In 1985 Kirschvink failed to replicate a version of the chair experiment Although the Manchester experiments cast a pall over human magnetoreception Kirschvink quietly took up Baker’s mantle pursuing human experiments on the side for 30 years He never gave up running students through a gauntlet of magnetic coils and experimental protocols “The irritating thing was [our] experiments were not negative” he says “But from day to day we couldn’t reproduce them” Now with a $900000 grant from the Human Frontier Science Program Kirschvink; Shinsuke Shimojo a Caltech psychophysicist and EEG expert; and Ayumu Matani a neuroengineer at the University of Tokyo are making their best effort ever to test Baker’s claims Baker finds it ironic that his onetime antagonist is now leading the charge for human magnetoreception “Joe is probably in a better position to do this than most” he writes As for whether he thinks his results still indicate something real Baker says there is “not a shadow of doubt in my mind: Humans can detect and use the Earth’s magnetic field” Center of attraction Researchers are testing humans for a subconscious magnetic sense by putting them in a dark metal box and applying magnetic fields C Bickel/Science Next door to Kirschvink’s magnetics lab is the room where he tests his human subjects In it is a box of thin aluminum siding known as a Faraday cage just big enough to hold the test subject Its role is to screen out electromagnetic noise—from computers elevators even radio broadcasts—that might confound the experiment “The Faraday cage is key” Kirschvink says “It wasn’t until the last few years after we put the damned Faraday shield in that we went ‘Wait a minute’” Kirschvink added it after an experiment led by one of Winklhofer’s Oldenburg colleagues Henrik Mouritsen showed that electromagnetic noise prevents European robins from orienting magnetically The stray fields would probably affect any human compass Kirschvink says and the noise is most disruptive in a band that overlaps with AM radio broadcasts That could explain why Baker’s experiments succeeded in Manchester which at the time did not have strong AM radio stations The US Northeast however did which could explain why scientists there couldn’t replicate the findings In the current setup the Faraday cage is lined with squares of wire coils called Merritt coils Electricity pulsed through the coils induces a uniform magnetic field running through the center of the box Because the coils are arranged in three perpendicular directions the experimenters can control the orientation of the field A fluxgate magnetometer to check field strength dangles above a wooden chair that has had all of its iron-containing parts replaced with nonmagnetic brass screws and aluminum brackets Kirschvink Shimojo and Matani’s idea is to apply a rotating magnetic field similar in strength to Earth’s and to check EEG recordings for a response in the brain Finding one would not reveal the magneto-receptors themselves but it would prove that such a sense exists with no need to interpret often-ambiguous human behavior “It’s a really fantastic idea” Winklhofer says “I’m wondering why nobody has tried it before” The experiments began at the end of 2014 Kirschvink was human subject No 1 No 19 is Matsuda on loan from Matani’s lab which is replicating the experiment in Tokyo with a similar setup Matsuda signs a consent form and is led into the box by the technician who carries the EEG wires like the train of a wedding veil “Are we ready to start” the technician asks after plugging in the electrodes Matsuda nods grimly “All right I’ll shut the box” He lowers the flap of aluminum turns off the lights and shuts the door Piped into the box is Kirschvink’s nasal raspy voice “Don’t fall asleep” he says Matsuda will sit in the box for an hour in total blackness while an automated program runs through eight different tests In half of them a magnetic field roughly as strong as Earth’s rotates slowly around the subject’s head In the others the Merritt coils are set to cancel out the induced field so that only Earth’s natural magnetism is at work These tests are randomized so that neither experimenter nor subject knows which is which Every few years the Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN) in the United Kingdom holds a conference that draws just about every researcher in the field of animal navigation Conferences from years past have dwelt on navigation by the sun moon or stars—or by sound and smell But at this year’s meeting in April at Royal Holloway University of London magnetoreception dominated the agenda Evidence was presented for magnetoreception in cockroaches and poison frogs Peter Hore a physical chemist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom presented work showing how the quantum behavior of the cryptochrome system could make it more precise than laboratory experiments had suggested Can Xie a biophysicist from Peking University pressed his controversial claim that in the retina of fruit flies he had found a complex of magnetic iron structures surrounded by cryptochrome proteins that was the long-sought magnetoreceptor Then in the last talk of the first day Kirschvink took the podium to deliver his potentially groundbreaking news It was a small sample—just two dozen human subjects—but his basement apparatus had yielded a consistent repeatable effect When the magnetic field was rotated counterclockwise—the equivalent of the subject looking to the right—there was sharp drop in α waves The suppression of α waves in the EEG world is associated with brain processing: A set of neurons were firing in response to the magnetic field the only changing variable The neural response was delayed by a few hundred milliseconds and Kirschvink says the lag suggests an active brain response A magnetic field can induce electric currents in the brain that could mimic an EEG signal—but they would show up immediately Kirschvink also found a signal when the applied field yawed into the floor as if the subject had looked up He does not understand why the α wave signal occurred with up-down and counterclockwise changes but not the opposite although he takes it as a sign of the polarity of the human magnetic compass “My talk went *really* well” he wrote jubilantly in an email afterwards “Nailed it Humans have functioning magnetoreceptors” Others at the talk had a guarded response: amazing if true “It’s the kind of thing that’s hard to evaluate from a 12-minute talk” Lohmann says “The devil’s always in the details” Hore says: “Joe’s a very smart man and a very careful experimenter He wouldn’t have talked about this at the RIN if he wasn’t pretty convinced he was right And you can’t say that about every scientist in this area” Two months later in June Kirschvink is in Japan crunching data and hammering out experimental differences with Matani’s group “Alice in Wonderland down the rabbit hole that’s what it feels like” he says Matani is using a similarly shielded setup except his cage and coils are smaller—just big enough to encompass the heads of subjects who must lie on their backs Yet this team too is starting to see repeatable EEG effects “It’s absolutely reproducible even in Tokyo” Kirschvink says “The doors are opening” Kirschvink’s lifelong quest seems to be on the cusp of resolution but it also feels like a beginning A colleague in New Zealand says he is ready to replicate the experiment in the Southern Hemisphere and Kirschvink wants money for a traveling Faraday cage that he could take to the magnetic equator There are papers to write and new subjects to recruit Just as Baker’s results ricocheted through the research community for years Kirschvink knows that the path toward getting his idea accepted is long and uphill But he relishes the thought of showing once and for all that there is something that connects the iPhone in his pocket—the electromagnetic laws that drive devices and define modernity—to something deep inside him and the tree of life “It’s part of our evolutionary history Magnetoreception may be the primal sense” he imagines, They worry that any regulation tied to a specific technology will quickly become outdated and, some of the tweets sent out by US President Donald Trump are.
of more than a million migrants, That included a rice cooker she took an instant dislike to and never used again.