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Good embedded software has always been designed for both safety and security. However, connectivity has introduced intolerable levels of security vulnerability in safety-critical applications such as medical, autonomous vehicles, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.The tight coupling of safety and security, combined with heightened threat levels, requires developers to fully understand the difference between safety and security; also, to apply industry best practices to ensure that both are designed into a product, right from the start (Figure 1).Figure 1. Filtering out defects: Good software and hardware design demands that many layers of quality assurance, safeguarding, and protection be employed throughout the design process (Source: Barr Group) The implications of poor design With the IoT, systems are now vulnerable to “action at a distance.” A recent case involved Sony networked security cameras that were found to have backdoor accounts. These ports could be used by hackers to infect the systems with botnet malware and to launch more attacks. Sony since developed a firmware patch that users can download to close the backdoor, but many instances of coding or design errors are non-recoverable and can be catastrophic.To prove this point, two security researchers hacked an automobile while it was in motion, taking over the dashboard functions, steering, transmission, and brakes. The hack wasn’t malicious, but was instead performed with permission of the driver to let the researchers demonstrate how easy it was to hack the network carrier’s connection. Nonetheless, this hack led to 1.4 million vehicles being recalled.Of course, systems don’t have to be connected to the Internet to be vulnerable and rendered unsafe: poorly written embedded code and design decisions have already taken their toll. Take the case of the Therac-25, a radiation therapy machine introduced in 1983 to treat cancer. This is now a recognized case study in what not to do with regard to system design. A combination of software bugs, a lack of hardware interlocks, and generally poor design decision making led to fatal doses of radiation.The main culprits in the case of Therac-25 were found to include:Immature and inadequate software development process (“untestable software”).Incomplete reliability modeling and failure mode analysis.No (independent) review of critical software.Improper software re-use from older models.One of the main failure modes involved a 1-byte counter in a test routine that frequently overflowed. If an operator provided manual input to the machine at the moment of overflow, the software-based interlock used by the system would fail.In June of 1996, Ariane 5, Flight 501, departed from its intended flight plan and self-destructed because overflow checks were omitted for efficiency. When a variable holding horizontal velocity overflowed, there was no way to detect it and respond appropriately.Still, critical code and security vulnerabilities continue to remain unchecked. In fact, Barr Group’s 2017 Embedded Systems Safety and Security Survey revealed that, of engineers working on projects that are connected to the Internet and can kill if hacked:22% do not have security as a design requirement.19% of them follow no coding standard.42% conduct only occasional code reviews or none at all.48% do not bother to encrypt their communications over the Internet.More than 33% are not performing static analysis.Understanding the true meanings of safety and security is a good start down the path toward remedying this situation.Defining safety and security The terms safety and security, are often comingled. Some developers are under the misconception that if they write good code, then it will be both safe and secure. However, that’s clearly not the case.A “safe” system is one that, during normal operation, itself causes no harm to the user or anyone else. A “safety critical” system is a system that can cause injury or death when it malfunctions. The designer’s goal then, is to ensure — as much as possible — that a system doesn’t malfunction or fail.Security, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with a product’s ability to make its assets available to authorized users while also protecting from unauthorized access , such as hackers. These assets include in-flow or dynamic data, code, and intellectual property (IP), processors and system control centers, communications ports, memory, and storage with static data.By now it should start to become clear that, while a system can be secure, it’s not automatically safe: a dangerously designed system can be just as secure as a safely designed system. However, an insecure system is always unsafe, because even if it’s functionally safe at the outset, its vulnerability to unauthorized access means it can be rendered unsafe at any point.Designing for safety and security When it comes to designing for safety, there are many factors to consider, as the Therac-25 example showed. However, designers can control only their aspect of the design, and the focus in this article is on firmware.A good example of a mission-critical application is the modern automobile. These can have upward of 100 million lines of code, yet are placed in the hands of often-undertrained or distracted users (drivers). To compensate for such users, even more safety features and code are being added, in the form of cameras and sensors, as well as vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. The amount of code keeps increasing. Exponentially.While the sheer quantity of code makes coding and debugging such a system more difficult, much of the debug time can be eliminated if some core tenets are followed, such as:Hardware/software partitioning that factors in real-time performance, cost, upgradability, security, reliability, and safety.Implementation of fault-containment regions.Avoidance of single points of failure (Figure 2).Handling exceptions caused by code bugs, the program itself, memory management, or spurious interrupts.Inclusion of overflow checks (omitted by the Therac-25 and Ariane rocket).Sanitization of tainted data from the outside world (use range checking and CRCs).Testing at every level (unit test, integration test, system test, fuzzing, verification and validation, among others)Figure 2. Safety-critical systems avoid single points of failure. (Source: Professor Phil Koopman) For security, a designer or developer needs to become familiar with the intricacies of user and device authentication, public key infrastructure (PKI), and data encryption. Along with making assets available to authorized users and protecting them from unauthorized access, security also means a system does not do unexpected or unsafe things in the face of an attack or malfunction.Of course, attacks come in various forms, including basic denial of service (DoS) and distributed DoS (DDoS). While developers can’t control what attacks the system, they can control how the system reacts to the attack and that awareness of how to react must apply system wide. A system is only as secure as its weakest link and it’s wise to assume that the attacker will find that link.An example target weak link is firmware updating, with the device’s Remote Firmware Update (RFU) feature enabled. This can easily be attacked, so it’s good to have a policy in place, such as: Have the user choose to either disable RFU or load an update that requires subsequent images to be digitally signed.It may seem counterintuitive, but cryptography is rarely the weakest link. Instead, attackers can look elsewhere for attack surfaces made vulnerable due to implementation, protocol security, APIs, usage, and side-channel attacks.How much effort, time, and resources go into each of these areas depends on the type of security threat, with each having specific defenses. Some general measures a developer can take to reduce product vulnerability are as follows:Use a microcontroller with no external memories.Disable the JTAG interface.Implement secure boot.Use a master key to generate each unit’s device-specific key.Use object code obfuscation.Implement power-on self-test (POST) and built-in self-test (BIST).Speaking of “obfuscation,” there is a school of thought that teaches “security through obscurity.” This thinking can literally be fatal if it is solely relied upon, as every secret creates a potential point of failure. Sooner or later, secrets escape, whether through social engineering, disgruntled employees, or through techniques such as dumping and reverse engineering. There is a role for obscurity, of course, such as keeping cryptographic keys secret.Ensuring safety and security While there are many techniques and technologies that can help developers and designers achieve a high level of both safety and security, there are a few fundamental steps that can ensure a system is optimized as much as reasonably possible. First, design to established coding, functional safety, and industry and application-specific standards. These include MISRA and MISRA-C, ISO 26262, Automotive Open System Architecture (Autosar), IEC 60335, and IEC 60730.Adopting a coding standard like MISRA not only helps keep bugs out, it also makes code more readable, consistent, and portable (Figure 3).Figure 3. The benefits of adopting coding standards like MISRA go beyond helping to keep bugs out: it also makes code more readable, consistent, and portable (Source: Barr Group) Second, use static analysis (Figure 4). This involves analyzing the software without executing the program. It’s a symbolic execution, so it’s essentially a simulation. In contrast, dynamic analysis uncovers defects during runtime execution of the actual code on a target platform.Figure 4. Static analysis tools run a “simulation” of the source file, analyze for syntax and logic, and output warnings instead of object files (Source: Barr Group) While static analysis is not a silver bullet, it does add another layer of assurance as it is very good at detecting potential bugs, like the use of uninitialized variables, possible integer overflow/underflow, and the mixing of signed and unsigned data types. Plus, static analysis tools are constantly improving.Usually, static analysis implies use of a dedicated tool such as PC-Lint or Coverity, but developers should also consider re-analyzing their own code.Third, undertake code reviews. This will improve code correctness while also helping with maintainability and extensibility. Code reviews also help in instances of recalls/warranty repairs and product liability claims.Fourth, perform threat modeling. Start by using an attack tree. This requires a developer to think like an attacker and perform the following actions:Identify attack goals:Each attack has a separate tree. syu says: Note that this type of analysis benefits greatly from having multiple perspectives.But who has time to do it right? As straightforward as it seems to perform the four basic steps presented above so as to minimize errors and enhance safety and security, they do take time, so a developer must budget accordingly. While project sizes vary, it’s important to be as realistic as possible.For example, add 15 to 50 percent to the design time for code review. Some systems need complete code reviews; some don’t. Static analysis tools can take ten to hundreds of hours for initial set up, but once part of the development process, there is no additional time added to product development and they end up paying for themselves through better systems.Connectivity has added a big new concern to embedded systems design that requires extra emphasis on security and safety. A good understanding of these two concepts, combined with the proper application of best practices early in the design cycle, dramatically improves the overall safety and security of a product. These best practices include: adopting coding standards, use of static analysis tools, code reviews, and threat modeling.References: Backdoor accounts found in 80 Sony IP security camera models.After Jeep Hack, Chrysler Recalls 1.4M Vehicles for Bug Fix.Killed By a Machine: The Therac-25.A Case Study of Toyota Unintended Acceleration and Software Safety.Quote by Charles Mann, paraphrasing Bruce Schneier (Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 2002).Andrew Girson, Barr Group co-founder and CEO, has over 20 years of experience in the embedded systems industry, first as a senior embedded software engineer and subsequently in executive roles as a CTO, VP of Sales and Marketing, and CEO. Andrew is the author of dozens of printed articles and conference presentations regarding high-quality embedded, wireless, and handheld systems, and he has served on the Board of Directors and Advisory Boards for several organizations. Andrew holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Virginia. Andrew may be contacted via Dan Smith, Principal Engineer at Barr Group, has more than two decades of product development and project management experience in embedded systems design for the consumer electronics, industrial controls, telecommunications, medical devices, and automotive electronics industries. Dan is an expert in the industry’s best practices used for embedded systems design for safety-critical applications, and has been a speaker at several industry conferences. He is currently leading Barr Group’s “Best Practices for Designing Safe and Secure Embedded Systems” training course. Dan has a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Princeton University. Andrew may be contacted via “Hi there — you say one technique is to use “object code obfuscation” — I’m not familiar with this — I’ve heard of “source code obfuscation” (I have a natural gift in this area), but not its object code counterpart — could you please elucidate?” For each tree (goal):Determine the different attacks.Identify the steps and options for each attack “That’s a great question! I’ll have one of the authors get back to you.” September 6, 2017 at 10:02 pm Log in to Reply “From Dan Smith:nnThe idea of obfuscation is to make the code more difficult to understand. (This goes against the instincts of a good engineer, by the way.) As you know, source code obfuscation is possible, in fact there is even an annual contest (IOC Continue Reading Previous Dialing in to ESC Minneapolis 2017Next Will the iPhone 8 include a dedicated neural network engine? September 8, 2017 at 5:22 pm September 11, 2017 at 12:45 pm Max The Magnificent says: Log in to Reply 3 thoughts on “Designing for safety and security in a connected system” syu says: Share this:TwitterFacebookLinkedInMoreRedditTumblrPinterestWhatsAppSkypePocketTelegram Tags: Automotive, Communications, Consumer, Industry, IoT, Medical, Security Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must Register or Login to post a comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Log in to Reply
Lione Messi was back to his best as he scored a hat-trick in their UEFA Champions League opener to fire Barcelona to a 4-0 victory over PSV Eindhoven at Camp Nou on Tuesday.Messi netted a record eighth hat-trick in the Champions League.The Spanish champions’ all-time top scorer Messi broke the deadlock in the 32nd minute with an immaculate free kick which he curled over the wall into the top corner against a PSV side who had defended well and looked dangerous on the break.But Barca demonstrated the gulf in class as the second half progressed and doubled their lead in the 75th with a curling strike from French forward Ousmane Dembele, who scored his fifth goal in six games in all competitions this season.When that needle in the haystack is as sharp as a surgeon’s scalpel… pic.twitter.com/A3qszCJx1wFC Barcelona (@FCBarcelona) September 18, 2018Messi got his second two minutes later when he turned Ivan Rakitic’s dinked pass into the net with a flick of his boot.The mood was briefly dampened when Barca’s France defender Samuel Umtiti was dismissed in the 79th for a second yellow card before Messi completed his treble three minutes from time.The Argentine received another chipped pass, this time from Luis Suarez, and ruthlessly smashed the ball home.And #Messi said, Let there be a goal: and there was a goal. pic.twitter.com/7ydlC9fSwUFC Barcelona (@FCBarcelona) September 18, 2018The strike completed eight trebles in Europe’s top competition for Messi, one more than rival Cristiano Ronaldo who will make his Juventus Champions League debut on Wednesday.advertisementEXTRAORDINARY MESSI”Messi does extraordinary things and makes them look routine,” Barca coach Ernesto Valverde told reporters.”We have to pinch ourselves to remind us that we are living through a unique era. When he stops playing it will be difficult to find someone like him.”#BarçaPSVPhotos#ForçaBarça pic.twitter.com/Wuz1TDhYudFC Barcelona (@FCBarcelona) September 18, 2018PSV, coached by former Barca and Netherlands midfielder Mark van Bommel, had produced an admirable performance on their first visit to the Nou Camp in 21 years until they tired late on.In the first half they shut down most of Barca’s attacks and plotted several spirited breaks, while after the interval their Mexico international Hirving Lozano fired just over the bar.Van Bommel thought his side were hard done by in conceding the free kick from which Messi opened the scoring but he also paid tribute to the five-times world player of the year.”I don’t think it was a foul but Messi put it in the net. For me he’s the best player in the world and it’s strange to me he doesn’t win the Ballon d’Or every single year. But, overall, I think the scoreline was harsh on us.”Another game ball for the collection. pic.twitter.com/mqtN8O1NQoFC Barcelona (@FCBarcelona) September 18, 2018Barca lead Group B on goal difference after Inter Milan beat Tottenham Hotspur 2-1 at the San Siro. Umtiti’s dismissal rules him out of Barca’s next game at Spurs Hotspur on October 3.(With inputs from Reuters)
Manchester United 4 Crystal Palace 0: Fellaini hits double as Mourinho’s men cruise Chris Myson Last updated 2 years ago 23:49 30/9/2017 Getty Images Manchester United won their seventh straight match in all competitions by easing past Crystal Palace at Old Trafford. Marouane Fellaini scored twice as Manchester United cruised to a 4-0 victory over rock-bottom Crystal Palace in the Premier League at Old Trafford.Juan Mata, one of Jose Mourinho’s five changes from Wednesday’s win over CSKA Moscow, struck early on, netting his first Premier League goal since February on his 200th appearance in the competition.And two close-range finishes from the in-form Fellaini either side of half-time took his season tally to four before Romelu Lukaku sealed a comprehensive victory late on as United continued to impress even without the injured Paul Pogba. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Why Barcelona god Messi will never be worshipped in the same way in Argentina Lyon treble & England heartbreak: The full story behind Lucy Bronze’s dramatic 2019 Liverpool v Man City is now the league’s biggest rivalry and the bitterness is growing Megan Rapinoe: Born & brilliant in the U.S.A. United’s win, which saw Marcus Rashford also shine with two assists, moved them top of the Premier League, a position they will keep unless Manchester City can defeat fellow title rivals Chelsea at Stamford Bridge later on Saturday.2 – This is the first time that Marcus Rashford has assisted two goals in a single game for @ManUtd. Creator. pic.twitter.com/iCCTxmDVcM— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) September 30, 2017Mourinho’s side have won seven consecutive matches in all competitions, while Palace are pointless and still without a goal from as many top-flight games as their abysmal start to the campaign goes on.Palace’s confidence was already shot coming into the game and United took advantage to move ahead inside three minutes.Rashford – another of the stars brought in by Mourinho – was the creator, easily cruising past Joel Ward down the left and cutting back to Mata, who finished simply with his left foot from 12 yards.That didn’t take long! #MUFC #MUNCRY pic.twitter.com/msqxddtBpO— Manchester United (@ManUtd) September 30, 2017A quiet spell followed the early drama, with the next shot on target for either side not coming until after the half-hour mark when David de Gea beat away an effort from Bakary Sako, who was starting in an unfamiliar striking role with Christian Benteke out injured.United had not tested Wayne Hennessey since their opener, but ruthlessly doubled their lead in the 35th minute. Ashley Young delivered a magnificent in-swinging cross from the left which left Fellaini with an easy task to volley in at the far post.That buoyed United, with Chris Smalling heading inches wide and Hennessey making a good save from Rashford at his near post as a demoralised Palace side went into the break two behind.Having struck early in the first half, United repeated the trick within four minutes of the restart. After Young was fouled by Luka Milivojevic, Rashford earned his second assist by whipping in an excellent free-kick from the left and Fellaini made no mistake, heading in from two yards.He’s done it again! #MUFC #MUNCRY pic.twitter.com/U991surOSG— Manchester United (@ManUtd) September 30, 2017Jeffrey Schlupp was angry to have a penalty claim down after a challenge from Smalling at the other end, while Young drew a save from Hennessey as United searched for a fourth.Lukaku had a quiet outing, but should have scored when he took advantage of an advantage from referee Mike Dean to run into the area and send a left-footed strike inches wide when he appeared destined to find the far corner.Palace’s wait for a goal went on, with Andros Townsend’s free-kick flying just wide in their only opportunity in the closing stages, before Anthony Martial was impressively denied by Hennessey after being played in by fellow substitute Ander Herrera.But United were not to be denied a fourth goal, Lukaku getting his seventh in as many league games by tapping in from six yards after Herrera and Martial had again combined in impressively creating the opportunity.7 – No player has scored more goals in their first 7 @premierleague apps for @ManUtd than Romelu Lukaku (7, level with Andrew Cole). Heaven. pic.twitter.com/fcsfhDfbdw— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) September 30, 2017Key Opta stats:- Only Halifax Town in 1990-91 (730 minutes) have gone on a longer run from the start of a season in English league history (top four tiers) without a goal than Crystal Palace this season (630 mins). Palace overtook Burnley in 1997-98 (552 mins) in this defeat to United.- Crystal Palace have lost eight consecutive league games without scoring, the joint-longest run in English league history alongside Hartlepool (two occasions, 1970 and 1993) and Sunderland (1977).- The Eagles remain the only team in Europe’s ‘big five’ leagues yet to score a goal in league competition this season.- Manchester United have never lost a Premier League game against Crystal Palace in 17 previous meetings (W14 D3 L0). The Red Devils have set a Premier League record for most games without ever losing to a single opponent.- Crystal Palace are only the second team to lose their opening seven games in a Premier League season, after Portsmouth in 2009-10.- No player has scored more goals in their first seven Premier League appearances for Man Utd than Romelu Lukaku (seven – level with Andrew Cole).- Marouane Fellaini has scored three goals from four shots in the Premier League so far in 2017-18 – more than he netted in the previous two seasons combined, two goals from 46 shots. – Juan Mata, who made his 200th Premier League appearance (the seventh Spanish player to reach this feat), ended a run of 809 minutes without a PL goal. read more
SALT LAKE CITY, UT – OCTOBER 7: Utah Utes cheerleaders lead the team onto the field before an college football game against the Stanford Cardinal on October 7, 2017 at Rice Eccles Stadium in Salt Lake City, Utah. Stanford defeated Utah 23-20. (Photo by George Frey/Getty Images)On Wednesday night, 247Sports broke the surprising news that Utah football freshman quarterback Jack Tuttle will transfer. The former four-star recruit was serving as the Utes third-stringer through the first half of the season.Tuttle was a major recruiting win for the Utes. The team landed him during his junior year, and withstood offers from a number of huge programs, including Alabama, LSU, USC, and Wisconsin.In breaking the news, UteZone writer Dan Sorensen also identified some schools that could potentially be on the list for Tuttle.Five schools were named as potential Jack Tuttle transfer destinations.He doesn’t think the California-native will look to move within the Pac-12. There could be some big programs from other Power Five leagues involved though.From the write-up:“Tuttle is likely to transfer to a school outside of the Pac-12, given the conference’s eligibility penalties for non-graduate transfers from schools within the conference. Possible destinations include Ohio State, Duke, Vanderbilt, Texas A&M, and West Virginia.”That’s an interesting array of schools. Ohio State is the biggest name there, and after sitting out a year, Dwayne Haskins will likely be in the NFL. Tuttle would have to battle it out with another former blue-chip prospect, Tate Martell, who has gotten some time for the Buckeyes this year and looks impressive.The other options feature a number of coaches who have had a lot of success in grooming quarterbacks, in David Cutcliffe, Jimbo Fisher, and Dana Holgorsen. They definitely make some sense.Tuttle was the No. 167 recruit in the class of 2018. 247 ranked him No. 8 among pro-style quarterbacks and No. 25 in California.[247Sports]
zoom Moscow Design Bureau Compas is bringing to market a mobile multifunctional seaport, according to Russian state corporation Rostec.The complex consists of floating berths and pontoons of various profiles, has all necessary infrastructure including communication and monitoring systems as well as independent power supply system. The port can be assembled at a new location in 25-30 days.“Such developments today are non-existent anywhere else in the world,” says Vladimir Maslyuk, deputy general director of MKB Compas.“The uniqueness of our project lies in the project’s rate at which it can be deployed, disassembled and, if necessary, all the necessary port facilities moved to a new place. To assemble the port in a new place takes only 25 to 30 days,” Maslyuk said, adding that the cost of creating the port of modular elements is several times lower than in the construction of stationary objects, which allows for faster return on investment.“The mobile port is fitted with fire fighting equipment, pumping units, etc”A multifunctional port is a complete analog of a conventional port. It has everything necessary for mooring, loading and unloading of different vessels. The complex includes a berth for general cargoes with container terminals of up to 200 meters long, pontoons-refrigerators, elevators, oil storage facilities, power pontoons with wind generators, personnel premises.Modifications are available with heliports, yacht pontoons and floatels.The complex can operate in any water bodies with depth from 2 to 100 meters under moderate sea conditions (waves of up to 1.5 m high) including tidal waters with level difference of up to 6 m.The complex has undergone all required tests. The interest to it has been expressed by a number of companies and BRICS countries, the statement says.According to Rostec, the complex is both applicable to rivers and sea port usage.Press Release, August 8, 2014; Image: Rostec
Premier Rodney MacDonald is offering his personal condolences and those of the province to the family of the late John Abbass, who died today, July 4, in Cape Breton. He was 84. “Mr. Abbass always brought a smile to your face,” said premier MacDonald. “You always knew he was going to speak his mind and say it with humour, but there was always much thought in what he said. My condolences go out to his family, who always offered him so much support over the years in his various endeavours.” Among his many accomplishments, Mr. Abbass founded Abbass Studios in 1946 and was a contract photographer for the Cape Breton Post. He was involved in the Progressive Conservative party, serving as provincial party president from 1985 to 1988. In 2006, the provincial party named him honourary president. -30-
NITI Aayog’s Health Index 2019 has several takeaways for the country in its bid to strengthen the health sector and coverage. The second edition of ‘Healthy States, Progressive India’ report, recently released by NITI Aayog ranked all states and UTs in three categories for rational comparison of states. Unsurprisingly, Kerala topped the list but was classified as a “not improved” state despite the first position and laudable work in achieving UN sustainable development goals on infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate way ahead of the deadline – 2030. Tamil Nadu followed on similar lines as Kerala and due to government’s formula for computing performances, both states will be allocated a lesser share of India’s health funding – National Health Mission (NHM). Since the Ministry of Health has linked NHM with the performance of states in this health index, states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu, whose performance deteriorated in 2017-18 as compared to 2015-16 are entitled to the lowest share of the Rs 34,000 crore NHM fund. While it is important that such an index is developed to identify areas of improvement and conduct a comprehensive analysis, such gaps where states may end up not benefitting much from the Central fund is a matter of concern. It is not like the poorer states will benefit much either. UP and Bihar have again taken the bottom position and it is important to note how performance in parameters has deteriorated signalling lesser share to them despite in grave need. For a minute, if Kerala can still end up managing health expenditure with little share from NHM, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar can’t. But being tagged as “not improved”, similar to Kerala, means even they will not be getting the major chunk of NHM irrespective of the fact that they really need it. And, this is not only a computation lacuna but rather poor performance on an average. Bihar and UP have abysmal readings of various parameters that NITI Aayog takes into consideration for developing such an index. Consistently appalling performance has led them to where they are in the index. Even so, efforts can be directed to change the ‘not improved’ status and put these needy states in the trajectory of registering positive shift in parameters and entitled for a bigger share of the NHM. The index grossly shows a snapshot of health in Indian states. The Hindi heartland states of UP, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh show a similar trend of poor performance. Interestingly, this is the belt which also houses a higher percentage of children with stunted growth, malnutrition and poor health delivery in general. Bihar is a case in point following the dangerous AES epidemic that has claimed over 100 lives alone this year besides being a persistent problem for over a decade now. While novel governance is required to take these states out of the poverty shadow they reel under, extending government support for identifying and utilising state-sponsored schemes remain necessary. Many a time people are unaware of facilities that they can avail and suffer due to lack of knowledge. Ayushman Bharat, though in effect, is yet to be understood by a large populous of poor people, for whom it is targetted, simply because they cannot understand how to avail it. Such gaps need to be filled at the grassroots for a grand health scheme like Ayushman Bharat to work in full effect. While it is only the beginning year of Ayushman Bharat and much has to be done before it gets reflected in the health index, analysing the gaps will ensure reinforced attention towards implementation hereafter. Also Read – A compounding difficultyNITI Aayog’s health index is a good way to identify poor performing states and accordingly adjust schemes, conduct extensive research and initiate steps to ameliorate the situation. For instance, Bihar now has effectively allowed the entire country, and perhaps the world, to criticise its poor implementation of government measures amidst administration failures which have collectively combined to give rise to AES outbreak. Medical science will take its own path in solving the encephalitis conundrum but administration has nothing to hide from. Likewise, all states will now have to focus on implementation since basic parameters will now define how much funds these states get from the Central fund. In essence, the government’s logic of linking NHM with the health index is not faulty since the only way right now to ensure state commitment in doubling efforts in the health sector is to outrightly award a fitting status – for poorer performers it should be the commitment to rise and for the better ones it should be that to excel. The latter can be role models for the former as a combined effort – shared learning and administrative advice – will ensure the healthy development of all states progressing to achieve the nation’s dream in health coverage and delivery!
QUEBEC – The 10 members elected Oct. 1 for the sovereigntist left-wing party Quebec solidaire refused to swear allegiance to the Queen publicly Wednesday as they made their entry into the provincial legislature.Instead, they chose to swear the obligatory oath behind closed doors, away from the view of family and friends attending the ceremony.In public, they declared their loyalty to the Quebec people, the second part of the oath required of all members of the national assembly.Manon Masse, Quebec solidaire’s co-spokesperson, called the oath to the Queen “an archaic and, frankly, unpleasant ritual.”She said making the declaration out of public view was a matter of respect for members’ sovereigntist convictions. Sol Zanetti, who represents a Quebec City riding for the party, said it was “humiliating” to swear an oath that clashed with his personal convictions.The opposition party plans to table legislation to get rid of the oath to the Queen.
VICTORIA, B.C. — Peace River South MLA Mike Bernier says he’s not happy about some of the recommendations made by Attorney General David Eby in a report on the upcoming provincial referendum on proportional representation, which is due out this fall.Bernier said that the report shows that the NDP has “stacked the deck” in favour of B.C. residents to vote in favour of the province adopting proportional representation during the upcoming referendum. Bernier, who has come out against getting rid of the current First Past The Post system, claims that Premier John Horgan broke a promise after saying that the referendum would consist of a simple ‘yes or no’ question.“They broke their promise on how they were going to do this referendum. Now they’ve made it more rigged where its really convoluted and confusing for people. They have not provided any time for groups to really formulate and understand what it’s about. There’s no maps that are showing how the boundaries might change. It’s a completely manipulated process.” Bernier said he feels that the current timeline that has been adopted by the provincial government is too short. He said that the previous Liberal government allowed for over a year ahead of the last referendum on electoral reform, which was held in conjunction with the 2009 provincial election. During that referendum, just under 61 percent of voters rejected the proposal for the province to switch to the Single Transferable Vote method of voting. That referendum followed on the heels of another referendum during the 2005 election, when 57 percent of residents voted in favour of STV, which was below the required threshold. Bernier also says that during previous referendums, there have been regional thresholds that have meant that the referendum would not pass if the initiative did not receive enough favourable votes in rural areas of the the province. He added that the NDP have not set any minimum thresholds for different regions, meaning that rural areas of B.C. could be out-voted based simply on the number of eligible voters who live in the Lower Mainland.
TORONTO — The Toronto stock market closed with a small gain Friday as job creation data in the U.S. came in well above expectations.The S&P/TSX composite index was ahead 27.16 points at 14,299.08, well off the best levels of the session as China growth concerns sent copper prices and base metal stocks lower.The Canadian dollar tumbled 0.81 of a cent to 90.17 cents US as other data showed the Canadian economy shed 7,000 jobs last month against a gain of 15,000 that economists had expected.New York markets were mainly higher as the American economy created 175,000 jobs last month, well above expectations for 139,000.The Dow industrials gained 30.83 points to 16,452.72, while the Nasdaq dropped 15.91 points to 4,336.22 and the S&P 500 index added 1.01 points to 1,878.04.“It’s good the jobs numbers came in better than expected because people have wondered whether the economy is slowing down or whether it was the weather impact,” said Sadiq Adatia, chief investment officer at Sun Life Global Investment.“And I think it’s highlighting that the U.S. economy is still moving ahead.”Some investors were playing it cautious ahead of the weekend and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine crisis.The week start started off with a sell-off on markets after Russian troops last weekend invaded Ukraine’s Crimea region, where it has major military installations and many people are Russian speaking.Markets quickly regained their footing but there was a new round of nervousness Friday after a warning from the chief executive of Russian state gas company Gazprom.He said if Ukraine doesn’t pay its $1.89-billion debt for natural gas, “there is a risk of returning to the situation of the beginning of 2009.” At that time, Russia cut off supplies to Europe because of a pricing dispute with Ukraine.The tech sector led advancers, paced by a 12.15% surge in Constellation Software (TSX:CSU) after the company reported positive quarterly profit and revenue numbers Thursday.The energy component climbed almost 1% as the April crude contract in New York moved $1.02 higher to US$102.58 a barrel.The metals and mining sector led decliners, down 3.55% as May copper tumbled 14 cents to US$3.08 a pound.Analysts pointed to Chinese authorities allowing the country’s first corporate bond default. Investors in bonds sold in 2012 by Chaori Solar Energy Science & Technology Co., a manufacturer of solar panels, were paid as little as 3% of the interest that was due Friday.“Non-performance by Chaori has now fuelled speculation as to how many more companies may be in a similar situation and what negative impact that could have on the economy,” said Edward Meir, commodities consultant with INTL FCStone.The gold sector fell just over 1% as April bullion retreated $13.60 to US$1,338.20 an ounce.The TSX ran ahead 0.62% this past week while the Dow industrials rose 0.8%.The Canadian Press
by Lauren Krugel, The Canadian Press Posted Feb 14, 2013 4:14 pm MDT AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to RedditRedditShare to 電子郵件Email Encana Corp. shares down after posting $2.79 billion loss in 2012 CALGARY – New federal foreign investment rules wouldn’t stand in the way of natural gas giant Encana Corp. being taken over, interim CEO Clayton Woitas said Thursday as the company reported quarterly and annual losses and saw its stock slide.Woitas, a board member who took over from Randy Eresman when he stepped down suddenly last month, said a takeover isn’t necessarily what Encana is after.“Any company is for sale at any given time. All I can say right now is we’ve had no calls, expressions of interest,” he said.“What we continue to do is execute on our wonderful asset base and whatever happens happens.”In December, Ottawa approved Chinese company CNOOC Ltd.’s $15.1-billion takeover of Nexen Inc. (TSX:NXY) and Malaysian firm Petronas’ $6-billion takeover of Progress Energy Resources. But it said from now on it will be tougher on state-owned enterprises looking to take control of Canadian companies, especially in the oilsands.When asked on a conference call whether that decision would preclude an Encana takeover, Woitas tersely replied “no” — but did not offer further explanation.Encana (TSX:ECA) shares were down nearly 6.8 per cent on the Toronto Stock Exchange to $18.16 after the company posted a loss of $80 million for the fourth quarter and $2.79 billion for 2012.The Calgary-based gas natural gas giant said its fourth quarter loss amounted to 11 cents per share, an improvement over a shortfall of $476 million, or 65 cents per share, in the same quarter at the end of 2011.Revenue came in at $1.6 billion for the quarter, down dramatically from $2.46 billion year over year but only slightly lower than analyst estimates.Adjusted earnings, however, came in at 40 cents per share, beating estimates by seven cents per share.For the full year, Encana posted a loss of $2.79 billion, or $3.79 per share, compared to a profit of $5 million, or one cent per share, in 2011.The company recorded a $4.7-billion impairment charge in 2012, primarily from the decline in the 12-month average trailing natural gas prices, which Encana said reduced proved reserves volumes and values.Since it spun off its oil and refinery assets into Cenovus Energy Inc. (TSX:CVE) in 2009, Encana has been focused exclusively on developing natural gas.Encana and other producers have been grappling with a North American oversupply of natural gas and limited opportunities to export around the globe — particularly the Asia-Pacific region.Encana ended the year with $3.2 billion in cash and cash equivalents, exceeding the $2.5 billion it had targeted in 2012, due in part, it said, to signing joint-venture agreements with subsidiaries of PetroChina Co. Ltd., Mitsubishi Corp. and Toyota Tsusho Corp.“Operational momentum built through 2012 combined with our major transaction agreements puts Encana in a strong position starting 2013,” said Woitas.Encana is aiming 80 per cent of its 2013 operating capital toward more lucrative oil and natural gas liquids, with a target of between 50,000 and 60,000 barrels a day.That’s a big jump from the 31,000 barrels per day Encana averaged in 2012, but lower than a range of 60,000 to 70,000 Encana set out last June.Natural gas production is expected to stay flat compared to 2012 levels at between 2.8 to three billion cubic feet per day.Encana says its capital budget is between $3 billion and $3.2 billion this year, about one billion lower than previous targets.“At the end of the day, the oil and gas industry is the commodity business,” said Woitas, adding the industry can show “discipline” in managing costs.“We intend to increase our margins without depending on the natural gas price recovery.”
AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to RedditRedditShare to 電子郵件Email by Michael Liedtke, The Associated Press Posted Apr 29, 2014 11:47 am MDT FILE – In this July 20, 2010 file photo, a Netflix customer uses Netflix in Palo Alto, Calif. Netflix will pay Verizon Communications to help clear up some of the congestion that has been bogging down its Internet video service. The deal marks the second time in less than three months that Netflix Inc. has anted up for a more direct connection to a major Internet service, even though CEO Reed Hastings objects to having to pay for better access. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma, File) SAN FRANCISCO – Netflix will pay Verizon Communications to help clear up some of the congestion that has been bogging down its Internet video service.The deal marks the second time in less than three months that Netflix Inc. has anted up for a more direct connection to a major Internet service, even though CEO Reed Hastings objects to having to pay for better access.Netflix negotiated a similar arrangement with Comcast Corp. in February.The financial details of Netflix’s partnerships with Comcast and Verizon Communications Inc. haven’t been disclosed.Netflix is reducing its reliance on third-party vendors to deliver video to Internet service providers because the streaming speeds of its movies and TV shows have been slowing in recent months.The company hopes the Verizon deal “will improve performance for our joint customers over the coming months,” Netflix spokesman Joris Evers said Tuesday. Verizon issued a similar statement.Netflix has nearly 36 million U.S. subscribers to its Internet video service, which charges $8 per month in the U.S. About 9 million customers pay Verizon for high-speed online access in their homes and businesses.With its Comcast partnership in place, Netflix says the quality of its video on that network has improved dramatically. In March, Netflix’s video streamed at an average of 2.5 megabits per second, a 66 per cent increase from January. The higher speeds translate into a richer and steadier picture.Netflix’s video streamed at an average of 1.91 megabits per second on Verizon’s Internet service in March.Although Hastings has publicly complained about having to pay Internet service providers for more direct connections, it’s not clear the deals will cost Netflix more money. That’s because Netflix already had been paying content-delivery fees to third-party vendors such as Cogent Communications Group Inc.In a blog post last week, Comcast asserted that its deal will enable Netflix to reduce its expenses.Netflix didn’t directly address that claim in its own blog post deriding Comcast last week. Instead, Netflix accused Comcast of “double dipping” by charging to deliver content that many of its subscribers want to watch. Netflix has become so popular that it generates nearly one-third of the evening traffic on the Internet in the U.S., according to the research firm Sandvine.The Netflix traffic is straining some networks and raising tensions with Internet service providers who argue they shouldn’t have to shoulder all the financial burdens for handling all the extra traffic.Even though Netflix is now working with Comcast, their relationship remains antagonistic. In the most visible sign of discord, Netflix is opposing Comcast’s proposed $45 billion acquisition of rival Time Warner Cable Inc. because it believes the combination will give Comcast too much control over the prices that both consumers and websites pay for Internet access.Netflix Inc., which is based in Los Gatos, Calif., plans to raise its prices by $1 or $2 for new customers only within the next two months. Netflix paying Verizon for more direct Internet connection in effort to improve video quality
WINNIPEG – The Manitoba government is warning six businesses that its tax information may have been mistakenly sent to other companies.Manitoba Finance says six returns for health and post-secondary education tax levy accounts display the business name, address, account number and reported total payroll may have been included in envelopes for other businesses.The provincial department says as soon as the error was discovered, it took immediate action to find and correct the problem.Manitoba Finance is directly notifying all businesses that may be affected.Business owners who have not received a return or received a return along with one for another business are asked to contact Manitoba Finance.The province has also advised the Manitoba Ombudsman of the situation.“Manitoba Finance takes the confidentiality of tax information very seriously,” the province said in a news release.“The department apologizes for this error, continues to investigate and will take corrective action as recommended.” by The Canadian Press Posted Oct 11, 2016 5:19 pm MDT Last Updated Oct 11, 2016 at 5:50 pm MDT AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to RedditRedditShare to 電子郵件Email Manitoba says it may have sent business payroll info to wrong addresses
OVER 600 JOBS have been saved after the High Court approved an examiner’s recommendations for B&Q Ireland to continue trading at its eight stores across the country.Under the scheme approved today, the home improvement retailer’s parent company Kingfisher is to invest €2.4 million which will ensure the retention of 640 jobs.Significant losses forced B&Q to seek an examiner at the end of January in a bid to rescue the business. The rescue plan does involve the closure of its store in Waterford with 47 jobs lost.“There is huge regret that the Waterford store was not viable, but, for the rest of the business, we look confidently forward to a sustainable future,” B&Q Ireland chairman Brian Mooney said.The agreement sees four other stores, which B&Q said were also under threat including a premises in Athlone, saved with Mooney adding: “We are more committed than ever to our operations in Ireland, and our loyal customers and employees.”Reacting to the news, Retail Excellence Ireland (REI) said that in exiting the examinership process, B&Q had set a precedent for international brands trading here regarding upward only rent reviews and getting rents lowered if the viability of the tenant’s business is under threat.REI’s chief executive, David Fitzsimons, said: “The development is most interesting for international retailers with parent company guarantees as precedent has now been set indicating that leases can be renegotiated even with a parent company guarantee in place.”Read: 137 jobs saved as 12 out of 24 Pamela Scott shops exit examinershipMore: In landmark decision, court says Bewley’s Grafton Street rent should fall
FAI CHIEF EXECUTIVE John Delaney has resigned from his role with the Olympic Council of Ireland (OCI).The 49-year-old has worked with the OCI since 2005 but today informed acting president Willie O’Brien of his decision to step down as vice-president of the organisation with immediate effect.Mr Delaney had previously been recommended by former OCI president Pat Hickey as his successor.However, Mr Hickey stepped aside from the top job in July after 27 years in charge, and indicated he would not be returning to the role, due to a pending police investigation in Brazil.The 71-year-old is currently on bail and facing a number of charges, including ticket touting, larceny, money laundering and tax evasion, in relation to the Rio Games.In a statement released this evening, Mr Delaney explained that his priority is his work with the FAI while he once again stressed that he had no role in the OCI’s handling of ticketing arrangements for the Rio Olympics.“I indicated some weeks back that I would be considering my position as the Football Association of Ireland’s volunteer member of the OCI’s Executive Committee,” Mr Delaney said in a statement on the FAI’s website.“Since then, I have been in discussions with the board of the FAI and many colleagues within the football family regarding my position within the OCI.“Having given the matter careful consideration, I have made the decision to step down as the FAI’s volunteer member of the 13-person OCI committee board, with immediate effect.Mr Delaney then outlined the reasons behind his decision.1. My role as CEO of the FAI is my primary role and priority. I have always been 100% committed to fulfilling my role, my obligations and duties in ensuring the growth and development of football in Ireland, which I will continue to do.2. As an executive committee member of the OCI, my role was never active in the day to day running of the OCI and as I mentioned previously, I was in a position to attend only five of the last 13 board meetings prior to the Rio Olympics.3. I had no role or involvement in the OCI’s handling of ticketing arrangements for the Rio Olympic Games.4. During my time as a member of the OCI Executive Committee I have always looked to the best interests of the Olympic movement, and in recent months I have worked extensively with the other OCI Committee members to ensure that all proper steps have been taken by the OCI, following the issues that arose in Rio. By Alan Waldron Frampton set for Vegas debut in January rematch with Santa CruzEddie Hearn tight-lipped following reports that he’s signed Katie Taylor to pro deal Oct 25th 2016, 9:53 PM FAI CEO John Delaney. No Comments Share83 Tweet Email https://the42.ie/3046178 Add us: the42.ie “I am fully confident that in due course my position and non-involvement in these matters will be clarified and independently verified on completion of reports carried out by Grant Thornton or Justice Carroll Moran,” Mr Delaney continued.Acting OCI president Mr O’Brien also released a statement this evening in which he thanked Mr Delaney for his work with the OCI.“This evening I accepted with regret the resignation of Mr John Delaney from his position as Vice President of the Olympic Council of Ireland,” Mr O’Brien said.“I would like to thank John for his hard work and dedication to the Irish Olympic movement in his time as a member of the Executive Committee and I wish him well for the future.”The42 is on Snapchat! Tap the button below on your phone to add! Tweet thisShare on FacebookEmail this article John Delaney has stepped down from his role as OCI vice-president The Waterford native released a statement this evening outlining the reasons behind the decision. Image: Ryan Byrne/INPHO Tuesday 25 Oct 2016, 9:53 PM 25,323 Views FAI CEO John Delaney. Image: Ryan Byrne/INPHO Short URL
Vancouver city councilors raised concerns about suggested revisions to plans for allocating money from the city’s voter-created Affordable Housing Fund.During Monday’s city council workshop, Peggy Sheehan, Vancouver’s community and economic development programs manager, presented an updated version of the Affordable Housing Fund’s administrative and financial plan that was originally created in June 2016.The levy-supported fund, which Vancouver voters approved in November through Proposition 1, has to serve families that earn no more than 50 percent of the area median income, which would come out to $37,350 annually for a family of four. The city sent out requests for project proposals that either produce more housing or preserve housing for people in that income bracket, and received 10 applications.A four-person committee reviewed the applications.“It’s been a really fast turnaround,” Sheehan said. “We wanted to be able to respond to the current housing crisis and take advantage of the construction appetite that’s been happening in our community.”Not just for rentOne of the suggested revisions in the fund’s administrative and financial plan is to clarify that housing assistance includes financial assistance not just for rent, but also for utilities and security deposits. Councilor Alisha Topper said she’s uncomfortable with taking funds designated for affordable housing and putting them toward utility assistance, however.“I would hate to divert those funds from actual rent,” she said.Sheehan said that people may need help with their rent or their utilities, and that Clark Public Utilities’ assistance program had to turn away qualified households because there aren’t enough funds.
In case you missed it… Working Mother has named Meredith Bodgas its new editor-in-chief. Bodgas joins the Bonnier Corp. brand from her role as executive editor for Bauer Xcel Media. She replaces editorial director Jennifer Owens, who is leaving the company. Xavier Romatet was named vice president of Condé Nast International. He joins from his role as president of Condé Nast France. Dean Stattmann was promoted to brand editor of Men’s Health from his post as deputy editor of digital projects. Here are the rest of this week’s people on the move… Bill Kristol is stepping down as top editor of conservative magazine the Weekly Standard after 21 years at the helm. Time Inc.’s Sunset has hired Lauren Ladoceour as travel editor. She joins from her role as deputy online editor at Rodale’s Organic Life. In a note to readers Monday, Kristol wrote that he will continue to write weekly editorials, while contributing to the website, and writing longer features. He will take the title editor-at-large. Stephen Hayes was promoted to the newly created role of EIC from his role as senior writer. Deputy editor Richard Starr will take on the role of editor. The Atlantic continues its hiring spree with the addition of Rosie Gray covering global affairs and U.S. politics for TheAtlantic.com. Gray joins from the political team at Buzzfeed News. Mark Ford and Mark Ellis are leaving the Time Inc. c-suite. Read more… Marina Khidekel is now senior deputy editor of Women’s Health. She joins from her role as deputy editor at Cosmopolitan, a title which has seen an exodus of top editorial talent in the last few weeks. Perhaps not coincidentally, then-deputy editor Sascha de Gersdorff left Women’s Health to join Cosmo as executive editor on December 1. “When we started the magazine in 1995, we hoped we’d last a while,” Kristol wrote. “It’s gratifying that we’re still going strong a generation later, and I appreciate more than I can say the efforts of all those who’ve made this possible.”
WILMINGTON, MA — Below are 5 things to do in Wilmington on Sunday, February 3, 2019:#1) Watch The Superbowl — Go Patriots!——#2) Wilmington Farmers Market OpenThe Wilmington Farmers Market will be open from 2pm to 4pm, in the Wilmington United Methodist Church (87 Church Street).February 3 Farmers Market Lineup:Vendors:Arrowhead FarmBee Balm Co.Country Farm CandleFarmhouse CottonFrom Sea To You Sea Glass PicturesGrateful TastesKC Styles Jewelry & Accessories Polish Prince PierogisPurple Carrot BreadRustic Farm Life SoapSeafood ExpressSusan Anton LMTSweet Lydia’sAdditional Attractions:Girl Scout Cookies from Girl Scout Troop 79097Music from Anne Sandstrom & John LorentzMake Patriots Noisemakers at the Kids Table#3) Wilmington Town Museum Open HouseThe Wilmington Town Museum (430 Salem Street) is holding its monthly Open House from 2pm to 4pm. The Museum at the Col. Joshua Harnden Tavern is owned by the town and is dedicated to preserving and presenting the history of the town of Wilmington. The Museum is housed in an historic 18th century tavern which is an excellent example of quality construction practices of the late 18th century. Exhibits are also on display in the adjacent late 19th century carriage house.#4) Middlesex Canal Museum OpenThe Middlesex Canal Museum and Visitors’ Center (71 Faulkner Street, North Billerica) is open from noon to 4pm. Learn about the canal, which travels through Wilmington.#5) Food ShoppingFood shopping in town this week? In case you haven’t seen this week’s circulars, Wilmington Apple has you covered:This week’s circular from Market Basket (260 Main Street) can be found HERE.This week’s circular from Lucci’s Market (211 Lowell Street) can be found HERE.Elia’s Country Store (381 Middlesex Avenue) does not have an online circular, but the store posts its hot entree schedule and other specials on its Facebook page HERE.Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email firstname.lastname@example.org.Thank You To Our Sponsor:Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… Related5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Sunday, August 4, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Sunday, July 7, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Sunday, September 1, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”
.The government like every year is going to observe the national Vitamin A plus campaign across the country tomorrow (Saturday), reports BSS.Around 22.5 million children aged between six months and five years, will be fed Vitamin A capsules under the nationwide campaign on the day.The total number of children, around 2.5 million aged between six to 11 months will be fed one blue colour Vitamin-A capsule each, while around 19.4 million babies aged between 12 to 59 months would be fed red colour capsules.They will be fed the Vitamin A capsule at some 1, 20,000 permanent and 20 thousand mobile health centres across the country.Mobile health centres will be set up at bus stands, railway stations, launch terminals, airports, ferry terminals, bridge toll centres and kheya ghats, and these will remain open from 8:00am to 4:00pm to make sure that all children are fed the capsules.At least two trained volunteers would work at each centres.The government would run the campaign for the next four days (15-19 July) in hard to reach areas and will feed Vitamin-A capsules through ‘child to child searching’ programme visiting each and every homes in 240 unions under 42 upazilas in 12 districts.The parents are requested to bring their children with full stomach to be fed the Vitamin-A capsule. Children should not be fed the capsule forcefully or while they are crying. Children aged below six months or more than five years or with any kind of sickness should not be fed the capsule.The rate of children’s night-blindness in the country has come down below one per cent following the distribution of Vitamin A-plus capsules regularly.Feeding of Vitamin-A capsule not only keep the children safe from night-blindness, it also increases their immune system, keep their eyesight perfect, bring down the child mortality rate and ensure their natural growth, among other benefits.For the first time, this campaign will be inaugurated outside Dhaka this year, where health minister Mohammed Nasim will launch the programme from Pabna 250-bed General Hospital.